Smart Card Personalization

B. Gebremichael and F.W. Vaandrager. Control Synthesis for a Smart Card Personalization System Using Symbolic Model Checking. In K.G. Larsen and P. Niebert, editors. Proceedings First International Workshop on Formal Modeling and Analysis of Timed Systems (FORMATS 2003), September 6-7 2003, Marseille, France. LNCS 2791, pages 189 - 203. Springer Verlag, 2004. A full version is available as Technical Report NIII-R0312, NIII, University of Nijmegen, May 2003.


Using the Cadence SMV symbolic model checker we synthesize, under certain error assumptions, a scheduler for the smart card personalization system, a case study that has been proposed by Cybernetix Recherche in the context of the EU IST project AMETIST. The controller that we synthesize, and of which we prove optimality, has been previously patented. Due to the large number of states (which is beyond $10^{13}$), this synthesis problem appears to be out of the scope of existing tools for controller synthesis, which typically use some form of explicit state enumeration. Our result provides new evidence that model checkers can be useful to tackle industrial sized problems in the area of scheduling and control synthesis.

Postscript (NIII report).
Electronic version FORMATS paper on Springer website.
Postscript (local copy FORMATS version).
SMV source and code for trace simulator